HELVETICA'S IDENTIFICATION HELP PAGE
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NOTE: These lists need an awful lot of work to do. Please do not copy them to any websites, forums, download sites or online archives. If you use any of the information in them for your website etc., please be fair and give credit where it is due. Thankyou.
I HAVE NOTICED THAT SOME CHINESE AND SPANISH PEOPLE HAVE HAD THE AUDACITY TO COPY MY LISTS TO VARIOUS WEBSITES, FORUMS AND EVEN TO SOME ONLINE ARCHIVES CLAIMING THAT IT IS THEIR OWN WORK. IF SUCH BEHAVIOUS CONTINUES, I WILL TAKE APPROPRIATE STEPS TO STOP IT.
If you find them useful, and want or need to write to me, please do so or leave a message in my new guestbook. (My old guestbook provider closed down, so this one is new) I really appreciate receiving your comments !


I can also supply the entire set of lists (plus some unpublished lists) on CD-ROM for €10 / $15 / 15 SFr. including postage to anywhere in the world. Please use the email link above to order one.
NEWS: If you do not have Excel, these files - including the dropdown columns - also work equally well with the excellent office packet, "OpenOffice". The entire package can be downloaded for free here.

Suggest a new RIC list. Join my Mailinglist to receive news of new lists. NEW! 4-page PDF about How to Use the RIC lists Sketches of late Roman and Byzantine monograms for use with the "monogram" coin list.
RIC Rarity ratings What is RIC ? The lists are written with an old (non-fancy!) version of Excel and the dropdown columns work equally well with OpenOffice Calc (free download). Don't have Excel? How to submit an unlisted coin for inclusion in the list
Using Excel's autofilter to find your coin ref quicker How to download and save a list to your harddisk Sources in these lists include RIC (Roman Imperial Coinage, several volumes); published hoards from England, Wales (IARCW and University of Cardiff, by Dr. Peter Guest), Italy, Turkey and others, numerous other books, private collections, dealers, historians, amateur and professional numismatists, archaeologists and metal-detectorists ! Scott Capitus has written an excellent step-by-step guide to using these lists.


RIC LISTS OF COMMONLY FOUND BRONZE AND SILVER ROMAN COINS dropdown.test

This dropdown list will automatically open the appropriate RIC List if you have a suitable browser. You can save it from there, or, scroll down this page, find the list you want, right click the link and use Save Link As.. to save the list to your computer.

AllectusAllectus's radiate coins.
  • All radiate types including his AE Quinarii
  • Subdivided into groups according to reverse.
  • Includes bust types and notes
  • XLS format, 162 Kb.
  • Coins of Allectus on wildwinds.com
AurelianAurelian's Antoniniani.
  • All types including CONCORDIA.. FIDES.. ORIENS..
  • Subdivided into groups according to reverse.
  • Includes bust types, type descriptions and notes
  • XLS format, 422 Kb.


Coins of Aurelian on wildwinds.com
Some BEATA typesBEATA TRANQVILLITAS and variations.
Includes :
  • BEAT TRA-NQLITAS
  • BEATA TRANQVILLITAS
  • and all the variations
  • Includes bust types, notes and a bust type finder because of the many types and variations!
XLS format, 240.6 kb
Byzants-Large MByzantine coin type: Large M
The full list !
This is a large file of just over 5,000 lines (!) and contains ONLY the "Large M" Byzantine (and some Byzantine-Arabic) types.
  • Types: Large M and large m with and without figures, symbols, regnal dates, officina letters, crosses, chi-rhos and other things in the fields
  • Includes bust type list, links and notes
XLS format, 1.417 Mb
Byzants-Large other lettersByzantine coin type: All other large letters
The full list !
This file is split into the various large letters apart from "Large M" which is in a separate file
  • Types: Large K, I, epsilon, chi-rho, X, XX, XXX, plus various other, less used large letters. These types are split, according to type, into 7 pages.
  • Includes bust type list, links and notes
XLS format, 1.27 Mb
Byzants - all othersByzantine coins, others
  • Types: AE and billon coins including Trachys (saucer shaped coins) (no silver!), coins of general types, types with crosses, legends, religious figures etc.
  • Also includes many Byzantine-like coins of Crusaders and Crusader Kingdoms.
  • Note: Monogram coins are now on a list of their own.
XLS format, 536 kb
A nice campgate (not mine unfortunately)Campgates
Various legends, usually PROVIDENTIAE AVGG or PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
XLS file 535 kb includes Bust Types and Notes.
CarausiusThe Antoniniani of Carausius
All his Antoniniani - and there are a lot of them !
XLS format, 773 Kb

Coins of Carausius on wildwinds.com
CarinusThe Antoniniani of Carinus
The Antoniniani of Carinus, numerous coins not in RIC
XLS format

Coins of Carinus on wildwinds.com
CarusThe Antoniniani of Carus
All his Antoniniani, with many thanks to Ed of Othila Coins, THE Carus website for additional information, corrections and lists
XLS format, 170 Kb

Coins of Carus on wildwinds.com
chi-rhoChi-Rho, Large
The large chi-rho types of Magnentius, Decentius and Constantius II
XLS format, 38 Kb
City commemorativesCity Commemoratives. Includes:
  • Victory on prow
  • Soldiers + Standards / Urbs Roma and Constantinopoli(s) obverses (as in "Soldiers and Standards" below)
  • Bridge over river
  • Star in wreath
  • VOT coins / Urbs Roma and Constantinopoli(s) obverses (as in VOTs below)
  • lots of medallions (all rare)
XLS format, 117 kB
Please also see the samples of "Victory on prow" types on my other website.

City Commemorative Coins on wildwinds.com
CLARITASCLARITAS...
  • Reverse legends CLARITAS REIPVBLICAE or CLARITAS REIPVBLICE
  • Struck only for Constantine I, Constantine II and Crispus.
  • Reverse type: Sol standing or walking left or right, holding whip or globe.
XLS format, 61 kB
Claudius IICLAUDIUS II
The Antoniniani of Claudius II Gothicus
  • Aequitas, Annona, Clementia, Felicitas, Fides, Iovi, Laetitia, Libertas, Liberalitas, Mars, Pax, Providentia, Roma, Salus, Securitas, Spes, Tranquillitas, Uberitas, Victory etc.
  • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, 2 persons, animals and objects
  • includes hundreds of hoard coins not in RIC, bust types and notes

XLS format, 630 kb

Coins of Claudius II on wildwinds.com
Concordia avgggCONCORDIA AVGGG and CONCORDIA AVGG
  • Constantinopolis and Roma seated facing, head left or right
  • Theodosius I and II, Valentinian II, Arcadius, Honorius, Gratian
  • All types from RIC IX and RIC X
  • Includes bust types and notes

XLS format, 104 Kb.
CONCORDIA MILITVMCONCORDIA MILITVM and similar
All CONCORDIA MILITVM (and similar legends) types
  • CONCORD MILIT, CONCORD MILITVM, CONCORDIA MILITVM, CONC MIL, CONCORD MI, etc.
  • Types: Emperor receiving something from someone, Concordia alone, Emperor alone (Constantius II and Vetranio), Emperor clasping hands with someone, Joined hands, Two Concordiae, etc.
  • includes several unlisted types. Pages for bust types and notes

XLS format, 490 kB.
CONSERV VRB SVAECONSERV VRB SVAE and similar
All CONSERV VRB SVAE and CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE types
  • Types: (Maximian, Constantine, Maxentius)
    Roma seated left in hexastyle temple holding globe and sceptre or Victory on globe and sceptre, sometimes with shield....
    .... on her own
    .... giving globe to Maxentius
    .... opposite Victory
    .... between two Victories
  • Numerous columns for details such as acroteria and pediment decoration, includes bust types and notes

XLS format, 114 kB.
Cross within wreath or legendCross within wreath or legend
  • Cross within wreath of Theodosius, Valentinian III, Arcadius, Honorius
  • Cross within legend of Theodosius, Valentinian III, Arcadius, Honorius, Galla Placidia
  • Includes bust types and notes

XLS format, 39 Kb.
DafneDafne and Captive
  • The CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE "Dafne" types of Constantine I, struck only in Constantinople.
XLS format, only 28 Kb.

Dafne type Coins of Constantine on wildwinds.com
DiadumenianDiadumenian Provincial Coins
  • Based on and compiled from Malcom Megaw's excellent book of the Provincial coinage of Diadumenian (with his permission)
  • Includes references to the page numbers in his book so you can check your coin against the image.
  • Separate spreadsheets for coins with obverses of Diadumenian alone, and Macrinus and Diadumenian together, acc. to reverse type (person, persons, objects) and a sheet of Provincial coins with Latin legends.

XLS format, 387 Kb.

Coins of Diadumenian on wildwinds.com
Fel Temp - the one on the right is my own gorgeous Rome 174FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing horseman type
XLS file, 1.53 Mb, includes Notes and bust types.
Note: I removed the "type finder" page because the countless differences to things like position of soldiers foot, knee, elbow, position of horseman's arm and hand, position of shield on ground etc etc. made by the various celators over the years would result in literally millions of lines.
Maybe my collection of Fel Temps with some pictures of my coins (on my other website) will be of interest to you.
Fel Temp othersFEL TEMP REPARATIO
All other types of FEL TEMP types except fallen horsemen (see above):
  • Fel Temp galley,
  • phoenix on globe or mound
  • Soldier leading captive from hut
  • emperor kicking captive
  • emperor with 2 captives
  • emperor on horseback etc

XLS format, 275 kB, includes bust types and notes.
FlorianFlorian's Antoniniani.
  • Subdivided into groups according to reverse.
  • Includes bust types and notes
  • XLS format, 142 Kb.


Coins of Florian on wildwinds.com
GallienusGALLIENUS
The Antoniniani of Gallienus
  • Aequitas, Annona, Clementia, Felicitas, Fides, Iovi, Laetitia, Libertas, Liberalitas, Mars, Pax, Providentia, Roma, Salus, Securitas, Spes, Tranquillitas, Uberitas, Victory etc.
  • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, 2 persons, animals, objects and objects with captives
  • includes hundreds of hoard coins not in RIC, bust types and notes
XLS format, 907 kb

Coins of Gallienus on wildwinds.com
some Genio typesGENIO.....
includes (all GENIO types):
  • GENIO POP ROM
  • GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
  • GENIO CAESARIS
  • GENIO AVG / AVGVSTI / AVGG ET CAESARVM NN
  • GENIO IMPERATORIS
  • GENIO EXERCITVS
  • GENIO FIL AVGG
  • BONO GENIO PII IMPERATORIS
  • Bust types & notes
Important: Due to the huge number of variations this is an unusually large file of nearly 1.5 megabyte.Because of the large number of variations, check every field of "possibles" in order to get an exact match. XLS format, 1.5 Mb.
Gloria RomanorumGLORIA ROMANORVM.
All GLORIA ROMANORVM types except those covered in other lists below. XLS file, inc. bust types, notes and "quick type finder". Types include
  • Emperor dragging captive
  • emperor with globe
  • emperor on horseback
  • Empress (Eudoxia) enthroned
  • two emperors
  • three emperors, etc.
XLS format, 335 kB
Gordian IIIGordian III
All coins of Gordian III.
Antoniniani, Denarii and bronzes
including some unlisted types XLS format, 28 kB.

Coins of Gordian III on wildwinds.com
Hoc Signo Victor ErisHOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS
Emperor holding labarum, crowned by Victory.
A little similar to the VIRTVS EXERCITI types made later for Honorius and Arcadius (in the appropriate list below) XLS format, 28 kB.
Iovi ConservatoriIOVI CONSERVATORI.
All IOVI CONS, CONSER, CONSERVAT and CONSERVATORI types:
  • Jupiter on his own or with a second personage,
  • with and without eagle, globes, captives etc at foot,
  • standing, sitting,
  • with various objects in his hands.
  • Folles, antoniniani, sestertii, dupondii and ases.
  • bust types, notes and type finder.
XLS format, 627 kB
Some of the IOVIs in this listIOVI.. the others
Other IOVIs (ie. not IOVI CONS.. which are on a list of their own)
  • IOVI ..TVTATORI, ..FVLGERATORI, ..AVG and AVGG
  • IOVI ...PROPVGNAT .. STATORI .. VICTORI
  • IOVI ..VLTORI ..IO CANTAB ..PATRI and IOV ET HERCV CONSER AVGG types
  • All types from RIC V onwards
  • Includes bust types and notes
XLS format, 160 kb.
Julian bullsSECVRITAS REIPVB Julian II bull coins:
  • Bull standing right, two stars above
  • Bull standing right, two stars above, eagle to right
  • All types from RIC VIII
  • Includes bust types and notes

XLS format, only 45 kb.

Coins of Julian II on wildwinds.com
Helena and Fausta typesLADIES, Coins of the ladies.
  • Coins of Helena, Fausta, Theodora, Aelia Flaccilla, Placidia and Galeria Valeria
  • Includes bust types, type descriptions, hairstyle info and notes. (Note: Salonina and Severina have their own lists).

XLS format, 190 Kb.


See the appropriate lady's page on wildwinds.com
Marti typesMARS and MARTI types.
  • AE Folles with Mars on reverse
  • Legends MARS VICTOR, MARTI PACIF, MARTI PATRI CONSERVATORI, MARTI PATRI PROPVGNATORI, MARTI CONSERVATORI etc..
  • Emperors: Constantius I, Galerius, Licinius I, Maxentius, Maximian Herculius, Maximinus.
XLS format, 118 Kb.
Viminacium Moesia and Dacia typesVIMINACIUM - MOESIA with bull and lion, and variations and DACIA with eagle and lion.
Primarily the list covers the coins with PMS COL VIM and variations and PROVINCIA DACIA on the reverse e.g.
  • Moesia standing between bull and lion, arms outstreched
  • Ditto, but with Moesia holding something
  • Victory or Emperor, standing left between bull and lion
  • A few rarer medallion types of Viminacium/Moesia
  • Dacia standing holding various attributes, between eagle and lion
  • Includes bust types and notes
XLS format, 220 Kb.

- Coins of Dacia on wildwinds.com
- Coins of Viminacium on wildwinds.com
MonogramsMonograms.
These coins are all late Roman or Byzantine.
Monogrammed coins of (usually) Byzantine emperors plus some Vandals and Ostrogoths.
Please also refer to the following page with sketches of the various monograms
XLS format, 55 kB
posthumousPOSTHUMOUS COINS.
Coins struck after the death of e.g. : Carus, Constantine I, Constantius I, Claudius Gothicus, Galerius Maximian, Helena, Gallienus, Mariniana, Maxentius, Maximianus Herculius, Maximinus, Nigrinian, Numerian, Quintillus, Quintus Julius Gallienus, Romulus, Tetricus, Theodora, Valerian I and II, Victorinus.
Types include: Constantine in quadriga * Constantine VN-MR types * Altars * Eagles * Peacocks * Lions walking left or right * Shrines
XLS format, 230 kB sorted according to reverse type, inc. bust types, sub-type descriptions and quick finder.
numerianNumerian's Antoniniani.
PostumusPOSTUMUS
The Antoniniani of Postumus
Split into pages depending on reverse type.
including coins not in RIC, e.g. Cunetio hoard, Alföldi etc.
XLS format, 135 KB

Coins of Postumus on wildwinds.com
ProbusPROBUS
The Antoniniani of Probus
Please note, my friends, there are thousands and thousands of variations, this is a large file.. I am very happy that it's finished, I started having nightmares about quadrigas chasing me :-P
Split into pages of 1 main person, 2 main persons, 1 person with captive(s), on horse, driving a quadriga, biga or chariot, objects (trophies, temples) and various.
Dozens of different bust types
including most coins not in RIC but documented by Alföldi.
XLS format, 1.93 MB

Coins of Probus on wildwinds.com
QuintillusQUINTILLUS
The Antoniniani and silver coins of Quintillus (brother of Claudius II, hence the similarity)
XLS format, 82 kB

Coins of Quintilluson wildwinds.com
Reparatio Reip and Reparatio Fel TempREPARATIO REIPVB and REPARATIO FEL TEMP.
(Note: FEL TEMP REPARATIO are on separate lists above)
REPARATIO REIPVB: Emperor raising woman and REPARATIO FEL TEMP: Emperor holding spear, standard or labarum and resting other hand on shield. (Struck only for Procopius).
XLS format, 54 kB sorted into sheets according to reverse type, inc. bust types.
RESTITVTRESTITV-TOR REIP and RESTITVTOR-REIPVBLICAE
Emperor standing holding labarum or standard and Victory on globe.
XLS format, 54 Kbytes.
Sacra MonetaSACRA MONETA
4th century folles of Moneta standing left holding scales and cornucopiae and with legends e.g.
SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, SACRA MONET VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN, SACRA MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN, M SACRA AVGG ET CAESS NN, MONETA S AVGG ET CAESS NN, MONETA SACRA A-VGG ET CAESS NN etc.
  • includes some hoard coins not in RIC, bust types and notes XLS format, 146 kb
  • SaloninaSALONINA
    The Antoniniani of Gallienus's wife, Salonina
    • Juno, Venus, Fecunditas, Vesta etc.
    • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, 2 persons, animals, objects and objects with captives.
    • includes hoard coins not in RIC, bust types and notes

    XLS format, 100 kb

    Coins of Salonina on wildwinds.com
    Saloninus and Valerian IISALONINUS and VALERIAN II
    The Antoniniani of the two young sons of Valerian (brothers of Gallienus), Valerian II and Salonina.
    • All the antoniniani of the two young Caesars.
    • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, 2 persons, objects and animals, and persons with captives.
    • Includes numerous coins from the Cunetio, Eauze, Normanby, Stevenage, Oliver's Orchard and Botley hoards which are not in RIC; bust types and notes.

    XLS format, 57 kb

    -Coins of Saloninus on wildwinds.com
    -Coins of Valerian II on wildwinds.com
    Sarmatia and Alamannia DevictaSARMATIA DEVICTA and ALAMANNIA DEVICTA
    Victory advancing right, holding trophy and branch, spurning seated captive
    XLS format, only 33 kb because these coins were made at a limited number of mints for a limited time and with few variations.
    SeverinaSEVERINA
    The Antoniniani of Aurelian's wife, Severina
    • There aren't all that many different types coins of Severina, so this is a very small list.
    • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, and 2 or more persons.

    XLS format, 52 kb

    Coins of Severina on wildwinds.com
    SiliquaeSILIQUAE
    Silver coins from RIC VIII to RIC X
    • Including siliquae, half siliquae, three-quarter siliquae, heavy and light miliarenses, Argentii.
    • Includes coins of Aelia Flaccilla, Anonymous, Anthemius, Arcadius, Avitus, Basiliscus, Constans, Constans II, Constantine II and III, Constantius Gallus, Constantius II, Decentius, Eudocia, Eudoxia, Eugenius, Euphemia, Flavius Victor, Galla Placidia, Gratian, Honorius, Johannes, Jovian, Jovinus, Julian II, Julius Nepos, Leo I, Libius Severus, Magnentius, Magnus Maximus, Majorian, Marcian, Priscus Attalus, Procopius, Pulcheria, Romulus Augustus, Sebastianus, Theodosius I and II, Valens, Valentinian I, II and III, Vetranio, Zeno, plus some Vandals, Visigoths and some known imitations.
    • Separate sheets for "persons", "VOT" and "other" reverse types.

    XLS format, 510 kb
    One of my R5 rated coinsSoldiers and Standards
    GLORIA EXERCITVS : Soldiers with 2 or 1 standards
    XLS file 390 kb includes Bust Types and Notes.
    Note: for unexplicable reasons, the RIC author is way off on the rarity of many of these soldiers and standards type coins. As an example, in my own collection I have over 20 which he described as R5 and over 40 which he described as R4.
    Some SOLI typesSOLI INVICTO COMITI and Sol variations.
    Coins in the list:
    • Sol standing left with globe or whip
    • Sol in quadriga (Antoniniani)
    • Sol holding head of Serapis
    • Sol with one or two captives
    • Radiate bust of Sol
    • Includes bust types, type finder and notes
    • (Note: also check the CLARITAS.. list, above, as the reverse design is very similar to this type.).

    XLS format, 770 Kb
    Spes ReipvbliceSPES REIPVBLICE.
    SPES REI-PVBLICE and SPES REI-PVLICAE.
    Types: (Reipvblice:) Emperor standing left holding globe and spear. (Reipvblicae:) Emperor holding labarum and globe, right foot on captive.
    XLS format, 68 kB inc. bust types and notes.
    Stag reversesSTAG REVERSES.
    Greek coins, silver and bronze from Ephesos and other cities, all with only a stag on the reverse.
    Types: Stag standing, stag forepart, stag grazing, stag head. Silver and bronze only from cities such as Ephesos, Phanagoria, Petelia, Magnesia, Hierocaesaria, Philadelpheia, Thyateira, Hierapolis, Bargylia and many others. Some provincial coins added. NO IMPERIAL COINS.
    XLS format, 423 kB separated into reverse types.
    TacitusTACITUS
    The Antoniniani of Tacitus
    • Aequitas, Annona, Clementia, Felicitas, Fides, Iovi, Laetitia, Libertas, Mars, Pax, Providentia, Roma, Salus, Securitas, Spes, Tranquillitas, Uberitas, Victory.
    • Separate page for Pax types
    • includes numerous unlisted types, bust types and notes

    XLS format, 240 kb

    Coins of Tacitus on wildwinds.com
    TetricusTETRICUS I and II
    The Antoniniani of Tetricus I and II
    • Aequitas, Clementia, Felicitas, Fides, Iovi, Laetitia, Libertas, Mars, Pax, Pietas, Providentia, Salus, Securitas, Spes, Uberitas, Victory etc.
    • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, 2 persons and non-persons.
    • includes numerous types not in RIC, bust types and notes

    XLS format, 150 kb

    -Coins of Tetricus Ion wildwinds.com
    -Coins of Tetricus II on wildwinds.com
    3 and 4 standardsCoins with Three and Four standards
    Coins of Nicaea (NIKAEWN), Antioch (Pisidia) and Juliopolis showing standards.
    • Three and Four standards
    • Legionary eagles (standards surmounted by eagles) between or flanking normal standards
    • standards surmounted by capricorns between or flanking normal standards
    • Split into two sheets: rev. legend between standards and rev legend around the coin's rim
    • For legends between standards: five columns for the various possiblities for the letters' positions.

    XLS format, only 48 kb

    -Coins of Nicaea on wildwinds.com
    Coins of Antioch, Pisidiaon wildwinds.com
    VRBS ROMAVRBS ROMA
    Wolf and Twins
    XLS format, 325 kb, includes bust types and notes.

    -Urbs Roma coins on the City Commemorative page on wildwinds.com
    Valerian II and SaloninusVALERIAN II and SALONINUS
    The Antoniniani of the two young sons of Valerian (brothers of Gallienus), Valerian II and Salonina.
    • All antoniniani of the two young Caesars.
    • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, 2 persons, objects and animals, and persons with captives.
    • includes numerous hoard coins (Cunetio, Eauze, Normanby, Stevenage, Oliver's Orchard, Botley) which are not in RIC, bust types and notes.

    XLS format, 57 kb

    -Coins of Saloninus on wildwinds.com
    -Coins of Valerian II on wildwinds.com
    Victory advancing leftVictory advancing left
    (usually with wreath and palm branch, sometimes with 2 wreaths) Legends usually SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE or VICTORIA AVG(GG). (No captives on this type! See above)
    XLS file 250 kb includes Bust types and notes.
    Victoriae LaetaeVICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
    Two Victories facing, inscribing shield over altar).
    XLS file, 585 kB, includes Bust types and notes.
    Victory standing left, looks like a Barbaric!Victory standing left.
    (Mostly Majorian but some others too)
    XLS format, 25 kB

    -Coins of Majorian on wildwinds.com
    victorinusVICTORINUS'S ANTONINIANI
    All the antoniniani of Victorinus includes hoard coins and numerous imitations, split into separate sheets for reverse types e.g. 1 Person, 2 Persons etc.
    XLS format, approx 96 kB includes Bust types and notes.

    Coins of Victorinus on wildwinds.com
    Salvs ReipvblicaeSALVS REIPVBLICAE
    Victory advancing left dragging captive and carrying a trophy over right shoulder.
    XLS format, approx 74 kB includes Bust types and notes.
    2 VictoriesVICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN and VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAE(S)
    • Two Victories facing, holding wreaths.
    • Two Victories facing, holding a wreath usually inscribed VOT/V/MVLT/X
    • includes several unlisted types.
    • XLS file, 173 kB, includes Bust types and notes.
    Some VIRTVS EXERCITI and VIRTVS EXERCIT typesVIRTVS EXERCITI, VIRTVTI EXERC... and variations.
    Coins in the list:
    • Victory crowning emperor
    • Emperor with foot on prisoner
    • Trophy and 2 captives below
    • Standard (VOT X and VOT XX types) and 2 captives below
    • Mars advancing right, holding spear, trophy and sometimes shield (VIRTVS.. and VIRTVTI legends)
    • Virtus advancing right, holding spear, trophy and sometimes shield (VIRTVS.. and VIRTVTI legends)
    • Includes bust types and notes
    • XLS format, 290 Kb
    VOT__VOT.. (V, X, XV, XX etc)
    Separate pages for each type plus additional pages for unusual reverses (e.g. VOT X FEL, VOTIS X PROBI AVG ET XX)
    XLS file, 460 kB, includes bust types and notes.


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    From the Swiss Declaration of Independence and Rütli Oath, anno MCCXCI: We are a united nation of brothers, which neither suffering nor danger shall tear asunder. We shall be free and would choose death before enslavement. We shall place our trust alone in God on high and shall not fear the power of men."
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